X-rays


What are they?
X Rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, as is visible light, but with some different characteristics. The important difference is that X rays can penetrate or pass through the human body and produce shadow-like images of structures such as bones, some of the organs, and signs of disease and injury.
X-radiation is a kind of electromagnetic radiation. X-rays are waves of X-radiation. X-rays have a shorter wavelength, and therefore more energy, than ultraviolet radiation.
Are they dangerous?

Where do they come from? Some X rays come from the excited nucleus of an atom but most come from the changes in electron energies. They occur naturally but can also be replicated by firing high speed electrons at a target



How do we detect them?
Optical detectors measure the visible light from a source; in fact, the Universe has many very bright optical
sources to look at. The light they emit is made up of large numbers of photons
all hitting the detector at the same time. This is because most optical sources
put out a lot of photons, and you collect a large number of them in the large
optical telescopes which exist.


What can they be used for? They can be used to scan a patients body for irregularities and brakes in the bones and dentists use them to loom at the inside of your teeth using an X-ray magnifying device which makes them penitrate through the bones to reveal any irregularities

Anything else interesting?
A multimillion-dollar machine at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory at California's Stanford University can combine x-rays into a laser beam similar to visible-light lasers.


In the table below, fill the cells with very brief notes. Use the other pages to gather the information from, and you may want to go outside of this wiki if you really can't find the information here (though I'd be surprised!).



Gamma
X-rays
UV
visible
IR
microwaves
radio
How are they generated?
Gamma-rays are produced by radioactive atoms and in nuclear explosions
Some X rays come from the excited nucleus of an atom but most come from the changes in electron energies.. They occur naturally but can also be replicated by firing speed electrons at a target
Powerful UV lights come from the sun, and man made things ( sun tan beds, UV lights)


Microwaves are emitted from a number of sources, for instance, in a mobile phone, they are generated by a transmitter chip and an antenna,
while in a microwave oven they are generated by a 'magnetron'. They are also released as a form of electromagnetic radiation from large stars
Naturally occurring radio waves are made by lightning, or by astronomical objects.
Manmade radio waves are generated by a transmitter.
How are they detected?
Gamma-ray detectors typically contain densely packed crystal blocks. As gamma rays pass through, they collide with electrons in the crystal
X-rays can be detected with a special peice of equiptment called an x-ray detector.

You can use a filtrate, or a UV detector. The filtrate option is cheaper.

With our eyes

Because humans cannot detect electromagnetic radiation we need special tools to detect them. If the waves are used for communications we use a reciver to detect them. If we are checking for contamination we can use a gieger tube to test for them.
Radio waves are detected by the use of radio telescopes.
How might they be dangerous?
They cause biological harm as their rays are ironing radiation.
X-rays can also be harmful. In the early days of X-ray science, a lot of doctors would
expose patients and themselves to the beams for long periods of time and they start to belaive that you could
get cancer if you are exposed to x-rays to much.
Humans that live in places with more ultraviolet light have adapted by getting darker skins. Pigments absorb the ultraviolet radiation, so it does not get through the skin to kill or injure cells inside. Injury to the skin by ultraviolet is called "sunburn." When humans are exposed to too much UV light they can get skin cancer from the damaged cells.


Prolonged exposure to microwaves is known to cause cataracts, which is a clouding of the lens, in your eyes preventing you from seeing clearly.
It is believed that exposure to large doses of radio waves can result in disorders such as cancer. There are also claims that people who are exposed to the low frequency field that are caused by overhead cables are affected.
What are the main or most significant uses?

X-rays can be used to treat cancer, take medical images (such as skeletal x-ray scans), and pictures of far flung stars and planets via x-ray telescopes like the Chandra X-Ray Telescope
they use them in hospitals to see the bones in the body. so if they have a problem and they think it could
be broken they will take an xray and then will be able to see what's the problem with the bone.


Microwaves cause water and fat molecules to vibrate, which makes the substances hot. Therefore we can use microwaves to cook many types of food. Mobile phones use microwaves, as they can be generated by a small antenna, which means that the phone doesn't need to be very big. The drawback is that, being small, they can't put out much power, and they also need a line of sight to the transmitter. Microwaves are also used by fixed traffic speed cameras, and for radar, which is used by aircraft, ships and weather forcasters. The most common type of radar works by sending out bursts of microwaves, detecting the "echoes" coming back from the objects they hit (like a bat uses echo location), and using the time it takes for the echoes to come back to work out how far away the object is. They are also used to transmit data over long distances with satelites.

Manmade radio waves have been used for a long time to send information, receive information, and to 'see' objects. Radar uses radio waves to 'see' distant objects by bouncing waves off an object and seeing how long it takes for the waves to return. Radar can even be used to find oil or see what chemicals are in soil. Radios also use these waves to send and receive information.

The content is good, though I know you had difficult finding it, but the lack of images doesn't help.
Also, the table is rather over-full with detail - it is supposed to be memorable!

Think of these points the next time.
B

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